If you really can’t spare a dime (because you’ve spent it all on new clothes and shoes), starting a fashion blog can be free. You can easily and quickly open a new account on a free platform like WordPress.com or Blogger. But before you do that, you should understand that such free platforms come with many disadvantages. If you want to start the right way, we strongly suggest starting with a self-hosted WordPress blog. 

Last August/September, I filmed a supporting role in Enough Said, real live goddess Nicole Holofcener's recent movie. (Early readers of this blog will remember lame references to musical theater. In the words of KP, This is a part of me.) It's out in theaters now! I'm really proud of it and still shocked that I got to work with such funny, wonderful humans.

Fashion designers have often referenced art and artists through the years, and for Spring 2019, designers tapped into everything from futurism to Memphis design. At Marni, images were collaged and printed on draped dresses and coats. Most notably, at Louis Vuitton, Nicolas Ghesquière channeled early '90s geometric Memphis pattern on a number of his Spring runway looks.


“Many of us already own plenty of clothes, we just need to use them in new ways to make them feel fresh and interesting. Trying making new outfits by mixing what’s already in your closet in new and unexpected ways, like mixing patterns. Pair that polka dot top with that floral skirt, or that striped top with those animal print pants.” —Ms. Jimenez    These simple tips will help you save money on clothes (without sacrificing style).
And for an expert tip: Arabelle of Fashion Pirate attributes her inspiration to her friends, sharing, “it was their unintentional encouragement that got me to where I am today,” adding that, through the blogging process, she sees the most important change from start-to-finish as “the many friends [she’s] made from blogging, and the experiences [she’s] had with them.” So, bloggers, there's power in numbers.
I keep a list in the back of one of my journals called "Moments of Strange Magic." It contains events that were either (a) just really, really happy (jumping around to Beyoncé with friends) or (b) aesthetically cohesive and perfect and synesthetic (driving through the desert in a blue convertible to Nancy Sinatra's "Bang Bang" past a bunch of neon-sign motels and trailer parks). Each event is marked with a symbol indicating whether it took place in real life, a movie/TV show/book, or my imagination. Examples of some imagined (b) ones would be: sweaty teens in shiny pastels dancing in unison at a wood-paneled, tinsel-covered community-center room to "Snowqueen of Texas" by the Mamas and the Papas; a view from the side of a guy walking down a school hallway to Frank Ocean's "Forrest Gump," passing lockers painted in the 1970s and a ton of muted, rowdy students; a girl submerging her head into a tub of red hair dye to the chorus of St. Vincent's "Cheerleader."
3. Give “them” a “package deal”. If you have a taste for looking good, why not pass that gift on to others? Many (i mean it) people who follow fashion blogs have very little fashion sense, so if you provide them with something like a good looking outfit, they will be more prone to share/like/follow. I’m not saying give away $200 jeans; i mean put those clothes together (on yourself or just laid out), snap a picture, and put it up as “the outfit for the day” or whatever. You can even geo-target this and base the outfit on the weather (or whatever).
While the runway showcases what’s coming next in fashion, the streets display not only the future but also what’s on-trend right now. So, if you’re looking to keep your wardrobe up-to-date, the world’s top street style stars have the inspiration you need. Every season, these stylish ladies debut the latest and greatest fashion looks, and Spring/Summer 2019 was no exception. From Paris and Milan to London and New York, every fashion week from the month featured outstanding outfits and lust-worthy looks. Here, we’ve rounded up the top trends from the season for you to add to your shopping list.
How to actually do it: "Figure out your go-to, foolproof looks," says designer Nanette Lepore, then seek out variations on that theme. Stumped? Picture the outfits that you feel most comfortable in. Or ask people close to you what you look best in. Once you've zeroed in on what works, find different takes. "I gravitate toward jackets, so I'll do a bomber style, then a silk version, or a denim jacket with leather sleeves," says Minkoff. "Whenever you feel the need to talk yourself into things, that's a red flag that you shouldn't buy them," says Minkoff. If you have doubts in the dressing room, it may help to take a photo of yourself in the item, suggests Aerin Lauder, the founder and creative director of the lifestyle brand Aerin. "It's much more accurate than looking in the mirror."
About Blog I'm Brittany Xavier and I began my personal style blog. My style is versatile, casual, comfortable and a bit edgy. My blog first started out as only fashion but over the last three years so much of it really includes the lifestyle aspect of my everyday life. A blog to highlight my affordable finds as well as brands I find worth the splurge, those investment pieces I'll wear again and again.
Not long ago, a reader (I’ll call her Kelly) has shared with me about how frustrated she felt and how unlucky she was. Kelly’s an aspiring entrepreneur. She had been trying to find investors to invest in her project. It hadn’t been going well as she was always rejected by the potential investors. And at her most stressful time, her boyfriend broke up with her. And the day after her breakup, she missed an important opportunity to meet an interested investor. She was about to give up because she felt that she’d not be lucky enough to build her business successfully.
Take Care Of Your Undergarments: To extend the longevity of your bra and ensure a perfect fit each time, you'll need to take care of them properly. The experts at La Vie En Rose recommend you wash your bras by hand to ensure they lasts as long as possible. If you opt for machine washing, unhook your bra to prevent it from twisting and turning. You may also want to use a wash bag which will separate and protect your bras from the rest of your clothes. Make sure you select a delicate or permanent press cycle, and whatever you do, do not use detergent. It's way too harsh and will damage the cup, lace and elasticity of your bra. You might want to try using Forever New Fabric Wash. Air dry your bras by hanging them. Source: La Vie En Rose

The constant search for New! and More Original! and Never-Used-Before-for-a-Show venues can drive designers to some obscure places, and pretty risky choices. This season that meant a plethora of shows held en plein-air, unpredictable weather patterns be damned. In New York, rain poured down on Telfar’s show at the Blade helipad on 34th street (and a temporary tarp erected above guests’ heads blew away); it dripped off the umbrellas into attendees’ legs in the Marble Cemetery garden in the East Village at Rodarte, as well as onto the tulle dresses sprinkled among the roses; and it misted over the benches placed outside the original frame houses at the Weeksville Heritage Center, a historic Brooklyn site commemorating one of the first free African-American communities of the 19th century, where Kerby Jean-Raymond set his Pyer Moss show.
How to actually do it: Obviously, you want to show off what you're proud of—toned arms or a slim waist. It's the downplaying of less beloved parts that's tricky. One tactic? Add opposite volume, like wearing wide-leg trousers to offset a heavier upper half that's wearing something fitted. "The object is to even yourself out," explains designer Nicole Miller. "So avoid anything too oversize or you'll look bigger." Another idea: Distraction. If you're pear shaped, wear forgettable black pants, then bring the focus upward with a bold scarf, says Louise Roe, the author of the style-advice book Front Roe.
As a business woman, you likely are smart with how you spend your money. There are certainly ways to penny pinch, but your business wardrobe is not one of them. Though the cost may seem like a lot up front, in reality you’ll get a lot of bang for your buck. If the item is high-quality, you’ll be able to wear it many times over many years, making the cost per wear low. 

Clean Out Your Closet: Those items that just seem to hang in our closet season after season -- or even year after year -- that we always say we'll wear, but don't, need to get tossed at some point. Donate them or do a clothing swap! You'll be making room for new clothes, which is always good. Better yet, incorporate the 'one in, one out' philosophy into your closet -- when something new comes home, something old gets permanently loaned to a friend. 

An argument for the past-life theory might include this anecdote: A drawing I did in my journal of how I remembered the backyard of my boyfriend's house looking on a night that it was snowy and dark included a metal swingset. The next time I went over there, I realized I'd only imagined the swingset, though he later told me that they did have one when he was little. My mom then told me that our family almost bought that same house before I was born, meaning that, in that timeline, I would have known that metal swingset, in that backyard. 

Casual style is one of the most important and personality stating styles that you can opt for every day! And in order to be flabbergasting and blindingly beautiful all the time, you just need to know the basic tips and tricks about causal style. So that’s what we are going to speak about right now, pointing out the main tips and tricks concerning the causal style. The word itself hints about the effortlessness and the relaxed attitude you should have about this style. This is something like a counterbalance to the strict dress code characterized by the rigid dos and don’ts and certain rules that’s impossible to break. So here we present useful casual style tips for women that will polish your day-to-day street style looks to perfection!


“Not enough people have heard of decision fatigue. Decision fatigue is the result of making too many decisions during the course of the day. All of these little decisions add up and actually drain the brain of decision-making power later on. So don’t waste your brainpower in the morning trying to get dressed. Instead get rid of things you can’t or don’t wear regularly and simplify your wardrobe to pieces you like. Keep your clothing simple, so you will have the energy to tackle life’s tougher problems.” —Dan Moyer Jr., stylist and national director of social media for Closet Factory   You should finally get rid of these articles of clothing and accessories in your closet.
Hope you had a wonderful Thanksgiving! Loved connecting with many of you on social about some of the best holiday sales and promotions over the weekend. I’m excited to share another awesome find today - this bird print skirt which is on final clearance. (Only two sizes left - eek!) I couldn’t resist a print that is a prime opportunity to pair red and pink together, and the fact that it’s a bird print? Icing on the cake!
Neely, 31, launched Fashion Toast in 2007. Her particular style of blogging -- photo-heavy posts featuring cool clothes and model poses -- has greatly influenced the generation of influencers who have followed her. While Neely has collaborated with established brands in the past, she recently launched her own line. Are You Am I, a collection of slip dresses, tap pants and distinctly cut tees, is notable for its specificity. For fans who want to emulate Neely's style -- and there are plenty of them -- there is nothing more perfect. 
Sporty surf looks were prevalent throughout the season. Perhaps the most major runway moment was at up-and-coming designer Marine Serre’s show, where she created couturelike looks out of neoprene commonly used for wetsuits. Also picking up on this surf trend was CALVIN KLEIN 205W39NYC, with a scuba-inspired ensemble, and Etro, where the model even toted around a printed surfboard. The surf look was even given a luxe makeover by Hermès, where a neoprene swimsuit was layered under a chic leather skirt.
With a whole new year upon us, many will be thinking about how to revamp their wardrobe or look throughout 2013. But with so many bits of advice floating around the Internet, it can be hard to figure out what tips to focus on. Should you follow the trends or define your own sense of style? Is mending your clothes necessary or should you look to a tailor for help?
If you don’t pick out your clothing items carefully, you might end up fixing up your outfit every couple of minutes, unable to have any fun at all. Start by choosing shoes which are comfy, and coordinate your outfit with them. Make sure all items fit perfectly, so that nothing is slipping. Also, experts recommend carrying a sturdy chain bag, so your hands can remain free.
Work Out Stylishly: Come on, let's be serious, the gym can be an intimidating place with so many buff, sweaty bods. We'd be lying if we didn't say we never wore mascara before lacing up. But hitting the gym shouldn't make you fret. It should make you feel good. Getting some trendy workout clothes that fit your body will make you feel more confident and encourage you to break a sweat.
Camille Charriere is an enviably chic Parisian expat now based in London, where she photographs her daily outfit to inspire her many fans. Camille's style is definitely informed by a French fashion sensibility, and she has a genius flair for mixing structured basics (such as a tweed blazer or white t-shirt) with more glamorous separates (say, a satin midi-length skirt). You can use the "Store" link on her site to shop Camille's actual looks via Instagram, so you can recreate her effortlessly stylish outfits. More »
But before you drop a few grand on a new wardrobe of very trendy pieces, take some tips from fashion professionals, including Net-A-Porter’s Fashion Director Lisa Aiken, stylist-turned-jeweler Jennifer Fisher and milliner extraordinaire Gigi Burris O’Hara. Here, these industry insiders drop some knowledge on how to overhaul your closet, shop a bit smarter and look like you always sit front row at NYFW. Here’s to a chic and stylish New Year!
Tuxedos may have been a talking point at the SS19 shows (more of that later), but there was a broader tailoring trend likely to change the way we dress next season. The industry is moving away from the more fluid midi styles of recent seasons to a sharper silhouette - tailored trousers were styled with shirts and belts for a pulled-together look that still feels softer than a suit - Balenciaga, Burberry and Givenchy were just a few to adopt the trouser-shirt line of thinking. It was an accessible take on androgyny and one that women beyond a size eight can really wear. The result? Clothes that look polished, elegant and confidence-boosting.
Los Angeles-based wardrobe stylist and YouTube vlogger Chriselle Lim is the fashionable force behind "The Chriselle Factor," a fashion blog that provides insight into her personal fashion style. Chriselle's site covers fashion, beauty, and lifestyle topics, ranging from travel to fitness and home decor. In the Fashion section of her blog, Chriselle shares photos of the drool-worthy outfits she wears to her jaunts to Fashion Week in Paris and New York City, among other stylish points of travel. Informed by a fashion sense that's super-feminine and completely trend-obsessed, this blog is a major destination for anyone looking for up-to-the-moment fashion inspiration. More »

References: Why You Truly Never Leave High School. Paul Feig's guest DJ choices on KCRW. Chuck Klosterman's essay on Dazed and Confused, in which he states, "Dazed and Confused is not a movie about how things were; Dazed and Confused is a movie about how things are remembered." Those fuzzy photograph-looking paintings by Gerhard Richter. Any Rodarte collection that cites California as inspiration. Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.
I have been thinking a lot lately about what validates an emotion/event/observation, makes me feel like it really happened and I really lived it, and this seems like the right occasion to word-vomit these ideas. (Plus, I miss having time to keep this thing going, and I do feel an obligation to people who have read my blog for a long time that is not unlike the unspoken understanding you have with your first best friend, the one who watched you like stupid bands and stupid people and embarrass yourself and cry a lot, whose insight into whatever you do from now on is shaped by a unique knowledge of all the ties which bind New You to Old You, and who refrains from bringing up in front of new acquaintances that time you were on the 8th grade hip-hop team in the interest of letting you become more of yourself. In other words, we had a time, but there's so much time ahead, and it is, somehow, at the same time, quickly running out.) 

You can’t have a fashionable clothing collection without jeans, but it can be hard balancing trendy ones with those which fit you perfectly. The first rule of buying jeans, no matter the type, is that when you’re in doubt regarding the size, you should always go with the smaller size – they’ll stretch after only two washes. If your daily outfit usually consists of jeans, having a glue gun is necessary. It’s a simple way to do your stitches and hams, it doesn’t cost much and you can decorate your denim whatever you find it suitable. When it comes to altering them, make sure you’ve washed them twice before you visit your tailor. A piece of advice – all hems of your jeans should go up to the tops of your shoes.
Whether you’re getting married, or you’re simply attending a black-tie event, you’ll definitely spend a lot of time searching for the right outfit. In order to be efficient and be happy with your choice, you should go shopping with a proper hairstyle, makeup and shoes, so you can see the bigger picture. Also, don’t forget to put on some nice underwear – you don’t want to dismiss a dress that doesn’t look good on you because you haven’t paid attention to your panty line.
The OG fashion blogger and best friend of Fashion Toast's Rumi Neely, the New York-based, Philippines-bred Bryan Grey Yambao has transformed from an online-diary keeper to a celebrity and fashion insider. While other bloggers from his era have fallen off the map, Yambao, 32, has remained relevant by branching out. Memorable projects include a collection with furrier Adrienne Landau and a hosting spot on several seasons of "America's Next Top Model."

About - I started this blog because I love clothes – thats obvious, right? I think that clothes and fashion are the best way to express yourself. An outfit says a lot more about a person than you’d think. I love sharing my daily outfits & makeup with all of you! I love to shop and I may or may not have a shopping problem (yikes!) but I figured I could at least turn that into something positive – by sharing my favorite fashion items with you!
"Pick out your outfit the night before. I cannot tell you how many times I used to not bother, then be in a rush in the morning and just put on the first thing I could find in a hurry. That way you can pick something practical, stylish and feel great, rather than rushing and feeling like a hot mess all day! Plus it gives you time to pick out your accessories — which I had a habit of running out without when I would pick it out in the morning!" —Submitted byKrissie Gonzalez
“Fashion” is a broad term used to describe many genres of clothing and accessories. Before you get started it is essential to select your area of expertise. This needs to be more detailed than writing a blog that appeals to men, women, teens, or children—but instead, you must focus on a specific niche within the industry. The area of expertise you select will be used to help create your marketing strategy, website URL, and website design. For example, you could select:

Purse Essentials: A purse isn't just a fashion statement. It's main purpose is functional. You carry it around wherever you go so it needs to contain some essentials: your wallet, a pen, pain killers, hand sanitizer, tissues, make-up essentials (we personally won't leave the house without lip stick and/or lip balm), hand cream, gum or breath mints, tampons or maxi pads (no one wants to be caught off guard during that time of the month), and for those of you who spend lengthy bouts talking, texting or gaming, bring your phone charger along.


Speaking of rules, we should mentioned those regarding showing skin. It’s pretty simple – show one body part at a time. So if you’re showing your cleavage, pay attention you’re not combining that with miniskirts, and the other way around. Looking and feeling attractive shouldn’t be based on how naked you are. A little bit of mystery is always a nice touch.
About - Already Pretty is a daily blog that provides tips and advice for regular women on regular budgets who want to look and feel fabulous every single day. Lots of helpful photos illustrate features on making your wardrobe work for you. Already Pretty also touches on accepting your own beauty, highlighting your best features, and other ways to feel more comfortable in your own bod.
Turn your calculator on, since this step is all about your payment options. You can choose the 12-month account plan for the lowest price or you might want to consider making a longer commitment. The other two hosting packages will last you twice or thrice the time, and your monthly fee will be lower! As for the rest of the boxes, you can leave them unchecked for now if you want, and return to them when the need occurs.
Unlike fashion-focused magazines and television shows, fashion blogs are able to be updated more frequently, keeping up to date with the new and up-and-coming fashion trends.[10] Not only are fashion blogs easier to access, many fashion blog readers (interviewed in Swedish fashion management study) stated that fashion blogs are far more personable and are more 'up to date' on both local and foreign trends. These blogs are granting unlimited access to the fashion world to anyone that has a connection to a computer. Karen Kay also stated that, “These days, before a designer’s runway show has even finished, you can bet your bottom dollar that someone in the audience, or better still, backstage, has recorded every silhouette, signature shoe, styling detail and sulking supermodel, then uploaded it onto the internet for style watchers across the globe to enjoy”.[citation needed] The interviewed Swedish fashion blog readers, stated above, had also stated that fashion blogs had helped share and promote new trends to a much greater extent than other fashion mediums. Unlike mainstream magazines and newspapers, which are constricted to what they write, blogs have the ease of writing about anything that interests author(s), allowing for a more broad spectrum of focused fashion trends.[9]

As a business woman, you likely are smart with how you spend your money. There are certainly ways to penny pinch, but your business wardrobe is not one of them. Though the cost may seem like a lot up front, in reality you’ll get a lot of bang for your buck. If the item is high-quality, you’ll be able to wear it many times over many years, making the cost per wear low.


10. Master getting in and out of a car. This is a move we all need to know, and it is crucial when wearing skirts or dresses. To get in a car, seat yourself first while facing the open door. Then keep your legs together and swing them in before scooting over a bit. To get out, keep your legs together and swing them out. Then grab the door and gracefully stand. 
A handbag is one of the most versatile and important accessories that a woman can own. There’s no such thing as “one too many” when it comes to bags and purses, but pay attention to what type is the best for you. Sure, you’ll need different ones for different occasions,so your should at least have three different kinds for starters – small, medium and large. From styles traditionally considered masculine to typical high end women’s handbags, there is nothing you can’t combine with the right clothes depending on the occasion. After that, you should concentrate on the type you use the most, which is also the type which will get worn out the fastest. That is why you should have more of them – if you switch them regularly, they will last longer. 

Then, take your sharing and relationship-building to the next level. Start reaching out to other bloggers and potential readers via Twitter. You’ll be surprised by how many great relationships you can build just by a simple tweet! You should also consider setting up informational interviews with bloggers you admire—it’s a great way to start building your network .(Need help finding bloggers and more readers? Check out my site, Canopi.me, where you can find and follow bloggers who share your interests, all in one place. Request an invite so you’ll have first access once we officially launch.)
Women’s fashion week, men’s fashion week — for a few shows, it was everybody’s fashion week, an acknowledgment that the orthodoxies surrounding gender are, at least in certain corners of the world, eroding as we speak. At Maison Margiela, there were bows on boys and suits on girls, and videos of models proclaiming that breaking rules was “My Mutiny.” (It turned out that Mutiny is the name of Margiela’s new fragrance, and that social movements are as co-optable for profit as anything else. Buyer beware.) But there was a genuine sense of play at upstart shows like Luar and Vaquera in New York and the newly rebranded Courrèges in Paris, a refreshing agnosticism about who could (and would) wear what. Who wears the pants? We does! — M.S.
"Wide Eyed Legless" is the fashion project of Madelynn Hackwith Furlong, a professional designer, art director, stylist and consultant who has collaborated with major brands, including J.Crew and Rachel Comey. Madelynn launched her style blog to inspire modern women to build a simpler, more thoughtful wardrobe, home, and lifestyle. It all started with a massive closet cleanse, that turned into a mission to build "the perfect wardrobe" through buying less, choosing higher-quality pieces, dressing with more intention, and taking an elegantly minimalist approach to the art of dressing. More »
If you don’t pick out your clothing items carefully, you might end up fixing up your outfit every couple of minutes, unable to have any fun at all. Start by choosing shoes which are comfy, and coordinate your outfit with them. Make sure all items fit perfectly, so that nothing is slipping. Also, experts recommend carrying a sturdy chain bag, so your hands can remain free.
Speaking of rules, we should mentioned those regarding showing skin. It’s pretty simple – show one body part at a time. So if you’re showing your cleavage, pay attention you’re not combining that with miniskirts, and the other way around. Looking and feeling attractive shouldn’t be based on how naked you are. A little bit of mystery is always a nice touch.
You cannot move forward if you choose to look backward. My Uncle Joe, who was an Ojibwa, married to my cousin, often said as long as the chiefs can keep my people hostage on reserves they'll never amount to anything. Joe was a wise man, wiser than all the politicians and and self serving chiefs, because one day the younger generation will leave the reserves and become full participants in society, hopefully enjoying equal benefits as well as equal responsibility.

“If you have an hourglass body type, look for styles and fabrics that reduce bulk and showcase your waist. Tailored pieces and stretchy fabrics that hug and accentuate your frame will bring out the natural lines of your hourglass shape. Look for blended knit fabrics and slimming neckline styles such as v-necks and scoop necks. A simple wrap dress is the one go to piece a woman with an hourglass frame should have in her closet.” —Kristina Michniak, stylist and global apparel manager for Spreadshirt    Here’s how to dress to look ten pounds thinner.

“For men and women, jewelry is the defining path for creating your own look and vibe. Research designers that are new and untapped (they exist in just about every city these days), and with Etsy and the internet, you have really no excuses. And don’t forget the supportive accessories. I don’t just mean investing in a nice watch and handbag. Ditch the old umbrella and cheap shades and upgrade already!” —Mr. Russell

Despite being something that everyone does literally every day, getting dressed (or putting together an outfit, if you want to get fancy), can feel like the trickiest, most frustrating part of the morning. Who hasn't stood in front of a closet full of clothing and thought “I have nothing to wear!?” Rest assured, you're not alone in this daily conundrum. To that end, we consulted a panel of experts—top designers, style consultants, and retail pros—to demystify the act (art?) of getting dressed, once and for all.
Why: Hailing from Sao Paulo, Helena Bordon is one of Brazil’s most influential style bloggers. She started her fashion education from a young age courtesy of her mother, Donata Meirelles, the style director of Vogue Brazil. When Helena was just 7 years old, she’d join her mum at all the top fashion shows and eventually interned at Valentino. Now, Helena is co-founder of Brazilian high street fashion chain 284, as well as finding the time to run her eponymous blog, helenabordon.com, which offers Helena’s insider style, travel and beauty tips. Disclaimer: expect holiday envy.
Writing: I interviewed Taylor Swift for the cover of ELLE, guest-edited a section of the July/August issue of Poetry Magazine, and guest-edited a Rookie section of the October issue of Nylon. So many talented people of all kinds are featured in both, so take a look! I also wrote the introduction to Petra Collins' book, Babe, which showcases the work of many of my favorite artists.

Designer Tanya Taylor, who recently expanded her range of elaborate floral frocks and smart blouses to include plus sizes, wants you to show your body off! “I believe in dressing for your body type, not hiding it,” she told Observer. That means going for a frock with a nipped-in waist or a skirt that emphasizes your curves. Concealing your frame under a billowing silhouette won’t do you any favors.


"Well, really, our memories are all we have, and even those we think of as "real" are made up. Art can condense experience into something greater than reality, and it can also give us permission to do or think certain things that otherwise we’ve avoided or felt ashamed of. The imagination is where reality lives; it’s the instant lie of backwash from the prow of that boat that we think of as cutting the present moment, everything following it becoming less and less "factual" but no less real than what we think of as having actually occurred."
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